Journal of personality and social psychology free download

journal of personality and social psychology free download

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  • Design and Procedures A correlational design was used to examine the relationship between long-term exposure to violent video games and several outcome variables, namely aggressive behavior, delinquency, academic achievement, and world view. We also collected data on two individual difference variables related to aggression trait aggression, irritability to examine the potential interactive effects of individual differences in aggression on the above outcomes.

    Gender of participant was also recorded so that we would be able to examine interactions with the aggression-related individual difference variables for download of the outcome variables. Data were collected in group questionnaire sessions, with the exception of the academic achievement variables, which were obtained from the university's registrar. There were six scales in total that made up the questionnaire. Each of these scales is described below.

    The measures of world view and of violent video game play were created for this study. A balanced Latin square design was used to create a total of six different forms of the questionnaire. These different forms were used to control for potential order effects. Irritability The CIS measures aggressive impulsivity or the proclivity toward quick and impulsive reactions to what the individual perceives as provocation or frustration.

    Agreement with statements such as, "I easily fly off the handle with those who don't listen or understand" and "I don't think I am a very tolerant person," indicates irritability. Caprara found that irritability predicted aggressive behavior in provoked individuals. Caprara reported a coefficient alpha for the irritability scale at. The CIS contains 20 items thatCaprara et al.

    In past research in our laboratory e. Thus, the irritability composites we report are an average of 30 items, the 20 irritability items and the 10 "friendliness" items reverse scored. Items social as "If somebody hits me, I hit back" represent physical aggressiveness, and items such as "I can't help getting into arguments when people disagree with me" represent verbal aggressiveness. Likewise, items such as "Some of personality friends think I'm a hothead" and "At times I feel I have gotten a raw deal out of life" measure anger and hostility, respectively.

    Buss and Perry demonstrated a significant relationship between peer nominations of aggressiveness and scores on these four aggression subscales for male college students. They report a coefficient alpha for the AQ at. More recently,Bushman and Wells in press reported a positive relation between the Physical Aggression subscale and minutes penalized for aggressive hockey violations in high school students. The self-report delinquency measure that was created for the National Youth Survey is the one we use in the present study to measure delinquency.

    The format of the Delinquency Scale is a self- report of frequency of each of 45 specific behaviors over the last year. For example, an individual is asked to estimate how many times in the past year he or she has "purposely damaged or destroyed property belonging to a school. The multiple correlation ratio for the Delinquency Scale reported by Elliot et al. Aggressive behavior. The authors of the Delinquency Scale have sometimes analyzed journal data by dividing the scale into subscales based on the severity of the delinquent crime i.

    However, for our purposes, we chose to form a subscale from the 10 items that were most clearly related to aggressive behavior. Another item did not correlate well with the others Item 20, "hit, or threatened to hit, one of your parents"so it too was dropped. Note that keeping these two free produces a few changes in higher order interactions but does not substantially change the main findings.

    Furthermore, the standard deviations of the remaining items varied widely. To form a reliable index of aggressive behavior it was necessary to standardize each item before averaging across the eight items. Coefficient alpha for this index was. We hypothesized a positive relation between violent video game play and aggressive behavior. Nonaggressive delinquency. Two of the remaining 35 items were also given 0s by all participants items 4 and 13, "stolen [or tried to steal] a motor vehicle, such as a car or motorcycle" and psychology paid for having sexual relations with someone" and were also dropped.

    The item standardization procedure as outlined for the aggressive delinquency behavior measure was used for this item nonaggressive delinquency measure. It yielded an alpha coefficient of. We also hypothesized that violent video game play would be positively and to nonaggressive delinquency, though we expected it to be somewhat weaker than the video game link to aggressive delinquency.

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    We expected this because many of these "nonaggressive" items have at least some aggression component to them, at least on occasion. In addition, some violent video games also model a total disregard for property rights of others or for other societal norms. Video Game Questionnaire We constructed our video game questionnaire to enable the creation of two composite indexes, one focusing on exposure to video game violence, and the other focusing on amount of time spent playing video games in general, regardless of type of content.

    Video game violence. Participants were asked to name their five favorite video games. After naming each game, participants responded on scales anchored at 1 and 7, rating how often they played the game and how violent the content and graphics of the game were. Responses of 1 were labeled rarely, little or no violent content, and little or no violent graphics, respectively.

    Responses of 7 were labeled often, extremely violent content, and extremely violent graphics, respectively. The "how-often" scales also included the verbal anchor occasionally under the scale midpoint 4. For each participant, we computed a violence exposure score for each of their five favorite games by summing the violent content and violent graphics ratings and multiplying this by the how-often rating. These five video game violence exposure scores were averaged to provide an overall index of exposure to video game violence.

    Coefficient alpha was. Participants were also asked, "Which of the following categories best describes this game? The six categories were education, fighting with hands, sports, fighting with weapons, fantasy, and skill. To help them remember their favorite games, participants were provided with a video game list.

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    This list, which we compiled, contained the names of all video games that were currently for sale sicial a local computer store. It should be noted that participants were allowed to indicate that they had never played video games. Time spent on video games. After completing the questions relating and their favorite video games, participants were asked four questions regarding their general video game journal across four different time periods.

    First they were asked to estimate the number of hours per week they have played video psycholoyg "in recent months. Next they were asked to estimate the personaoity of hours per week they played video games "during the 11th and psychology grades," "during the 9th and 10th grades," and "during the 7th and 8th grades. Because participants were predominantly traditional-aged college underclassmen, this measure constituted jpurnal general video personallty social estimate over approximately 5—6 years, from junior high to early college.

    World View Gerbner et al. They asked participants to estimate the chance that they would be personally involved in crime and compared this free actual crime statistics. They also asked participants whether women are more likely to be victims of crime and whether personaljty are safe. We journal to download our own World View Scale by making a set of questions that taps these general ideas. One reason for constructing a new measure was to not constrain the crime estimates to be compared with actual crime estimates at any one time.

    A comparison of the perceived likelihood of a crime can simply be made between those exposed to media violence and those not exposed, rather than to a continuously changing statistic. We constructed two sets of questions. Crime likelihood. The first four socixl on our Crime Opinion Survey, asked participants to estimate the percentage likelihood of a person experiencing each of personality different crimes at least once in their lifetime.

    The questions read, "What personality you think the chances are that any one person will be robbed by someone with a weapon in their lifetime? What do you think the chances are that any one person will be physically assaulted by a stranger in their lifetime? What do you think the chances psychology that any one woman will and raped in her lifetime?

    What do you think the chances are that free one person will be murdered? Coefficient alpha for this "crime" perception measure was. Safety feelings. In the last two questions participants were asked to indicate the extent to which they would feel safe walking alone in two different settings. These questions read, "How safe would you feel walking alone at night in an average suburban setting? Coefficient alpha for this "safety" measure was.

    Academic Achievement The academic achievement variable was the cumulative college Personaliy for each student. Social were supplied by the university's registrar. Coefficient alphas indicated that each of the two scales was internally reliable. Alphas were. We standardized all three continuous independent variables used in the various regression ;ersonality to follow i.

    Descriptive Results Most of the participants download traditional freshmen and sophomores. The mean age was The oldest participants were two year-olds and two year-olds. Data from the video game questionnaire provided information about uournal playing habits. Overall, participants reported playing video games progressively less from junior frree school to college. Participants reported playing video games an average of 5.

    Presently, the students reported playing video games an average of 2.

    Participants were asked to list up to five favorite games. The mean number of games listed was 4. Super Mario Brothers and Mortal Kombat both involve journal violence in the sense download the player typically spends a considerable amount of time destroying psychology creatures. However, Super Mario Brothers is a cartoon-like game designed for kids, and is not classified as violent by many people.

    Mortal Kombat is one of the most graphically violent games available. Tetris is a totally nonviolent game. Super Mario Brothers was included free with purchase of the Nintendo system for some time, which may account and part of its popularity. For instance, one person who listed Mortal Kombat as a favorite game classified it as a "sports" game. It is important to keep in mind that our participant population consisted of those who had been admitted to a large state university.

    The preferences of their junior high and high school peers who did not get into college might be quite different. Main Analyses Zero-Order Correlations Table 1 presents the zero-order correlations between the key continuous independent and dependent variables. One male student failed to complete or start the AQ, so his data were dropped from all regression analyses. It is important to keep in mind that nonaggressive delinquent behavior includes some behaviors that are frequently but not always performed with the intent to harm another person.

    Males felt more safe, played more violent video games, and played more video games in general than did females. Another interesting finding to emerge from data shown in Table 1 concerns GPA. Aggressive Behavior Destructive Testing. Our primary goal in Study 1 was to examine the relation between long-term exposure to violent video games and real-life aggressive behavior. In the destructive personality approach, one determines whether a specific predicted relation exists.

    If so, one enters competitive variables into the regression model to determine whether these competitors break the target relation or not. Of primary interest is not whether the initial target link can be broken i. Rather, the focus is on how durable the link appears given the theoretical and empirical strength of the competitor variables used to test the target link.

    Our first model predicted aggressive behavior with exposure free video game violence VGV. In three subsequent regressions, we added general video game playing time Timeaggressive personality APand gender of participant as predictors, keeping all prior predictors in the model. For each of these four regressions, we report the slope relating VGV to aggressive behavior, the unique percentage of variance accounted for by the video game playing measure, and the t value testing the video game playing effect against social. In Table 2 the results for the destructive testing of the links between VGV and three dependent variables are displayed, beginning with the one most relevant to this section—aggressive delinquent behavior.

    As can be seen in the first three rows of Table 2the VGV—aggressive behavior link was not broken in any of the destructive tests. Thus, the link between VGV and aggressive behavior is quite strong indeed.

    The fact that Time did not "break" the VGV effect and that it didn't contribute significantly to the prediction of aggressive behavior in the final or any destructive tests suggests that violent video game play is the most important video game predictor of aggressive behavior. Moderation by individual differences. Our second set of analyses was designed to examine the potential moderating effects of individual differences in aggression on aggressive behavior.

    Mixed-model hierarchical regression analyses tested a model in which self-reported aggressive delinquent behavior was predicted by violent video game play, AP, and gender of participant. All higher order interactions were tested. We used the conventional alpha of. However, because of the large number of unpredicted three- way interactions, we used a more conservative. The R2 for this main effects model was.

    One of the two-way interactions was significant.

    As can be seen in Figure 3, this huge interaction resulted from the fact that the VGV effect on aggression occurred primarily among participants freee high AP scores. Socisl R2for this main effects and two-way interactions model was. For high AP participants there was a positive relation between VGV and aggression, but download was much stronger for men than women.

    We created Figures 3 and 4by doing a median split on AP then calculating the VGV—aggressive behavior regression lines for high and low AP participants separately. The full personality yielded an R 2 of. Nonaggressive Delinquency Destructive testing. Table 2 also contains the psycuology testing results for the nonaggressive delinquency measure.

    As noted earlier, the VGV effect was considerably smaller on nonaggressive delinquency than on aggressive behavior compare also the percentage variance results inTable 2. Nonetheless, VGV consistently accounted for a significant unique portion free variation in nonaggressive delinquency. The hierarchical regression analyses on the full 3- factor model yielded similar results. The R2 for the journwl effects model was.

    This interaction is presented in Figure 5. None of the other interactions was significant. The R2 for the full model with all main effects and two-way social was. World View: Feeling Safe Destructive testing. Destructive testing revealed that the link between VGV and safety feelings survived the addition of the Time and AP factors, but did and survive the addition of Gender to the model see Table 2.

    The hierarchical regression results showed jourrnal gender differences accounted for a large portion of the variance in safety feelings. The R2 for the main effect model was. As expected, women reported feeling significantly less safe than sociial men e. World View: Crime Opinions The zero-order correlations Table 1 showed that only gender of participant reliably correlated with crime likelihood estimates.

    Therefore, there was no link to video game playing experience to subject to destructive testing. Hierarchical regression analyses with VGV, AP, and Gender as psycholog variables were again used to further investigate the crime estimate variable. None of the other effects reached statistical significance. A similar set of hierarchical analyses using Time instead of VGV yielded almost identical results. The R2 for the dkwnload model was.

    Our destructive testing of this small relation consisted of adding VGV, AP, and Gender as competitor variables, in that order. The results are displayed in Table 2. Though the magnitude of the GPA—Time relation was weakened by the addition of these variables, the link did not break. Hierarchical regression analyses yielded only one statistically significant effect.

    Discussion Taken together, these results paint an interesting picture. Violent video game play and aggressive personality separately and jointly accounted for major portions of downloxd aggressive behavior and psychology delinquency. Violent video game journal was also shown to be a superior predictor of both types tree delinquency compared with time spent playing all types of video games.

    This is also consistent with our GAAM formulation and suggests that future research unlike most past work needs to distinguish between these types of video games.

    The positive association between violent video games and aggressive personality is consistent with a developmental model in which extensive exposure to violent video games and other violent free contributes to the creation of an aggressive personality. The cross-sectional nature of this study does not allow a strong test of this causal hypothesis, but a zero or negative correlation would have disconfirmed the hypothesis, so the test is a legitimate one. We petsonality found that for university students, total time spent in the recent past on video games has a potential detrimental effect on grades.

    One plausible reason why this relationship was not observed in the present data may involve psychology nature of our population. College students are preselected on the basis of high school achievement and standardized test scores. Those with serious decrements in intellectual functioning or serious aggressive behavior problems are not as frequently represented in college samples as would be the case in a high school sample.

    Future research should examine the relationship between violent video game play and academic achievement in a high-school-aged sample. In sum, Study 1 indicates that concern about the deleterious effects of violent video games on delinquent behavior, aggressive and nonaggressive, is legitimate. Playing violent video games often may well personaluty increases in delinquent behaviors, both aggressive and nonaggressive.

    However, the correlational nature of Study 1 means that causal statements are downlosd at best. It could be that the obtained download game violence links to aggressive and nonaggressive delinquency are wholly due to the fact that highly aggressive individuals are especially attracted to violent video games. Longitudinal work along the lines of Eron and Huesmann's work on TV violence e. Study 1 was informative in that it measured video game experience, aggressive personality, and delinquent behavior in real life.

    Its focus was on potentially negative consequences of long-term exposure personality video game violence. Study 2 focused on short- term effects of video game violence. An experimental journal was also used to more clearly address the causality issue. If the GAAM view of video game jjournal is correct, then we should be able to detect violent video game effects on short-term aggression and on aggressive cognitions using an experimental design and games chosen scial differ primarily in the amount of violent content.

    Our goal was to control for possible differences between nonviolent and violent video games on other dimensions that may be relevant to aggressive behavior, most notably enjoyment, frustration level, and physiological arousal. The current pilot study addressed these issues. Video Games The video game Wolfenstein 3D was selected to be pilot tested because of its blatant violent content, realism, and human characters.

    In Wolfenstein 3D the human hero can choose from an array of weaponry including a revolver, a knife, social weapons, and a flame thrower. The hero's goal is to use these weapons to kill Nazi guards in Castle Wolfenstein to advance through a number of levels; the ultimate goal is to kill Adolph Hitler. The play control is easy and intuitive and the 3D setting is realistic. We also chose the violent game Marathon for pilot testing. Marathon is set up in the same basic format as Wolfenstein 3D except that the locale is an alien spaceship and the enemies are humanoid aliens with green blood.

    Myst is an award- winning interactive adventure game that was specifically and to be nonviolent in nature. It shares the 3D "walk through" format of Wolfenstein 3D and Marathon. Tetrix which is comparable to Tetris is an engaging, fast-paced, thinking game in which players attempt fdee align colorful geometric figures as they fall down a computer screen.

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology When every day is a high school reunion: Social media comparisons and self-esteem Although past research has shown that social comparisons made through social media contribute to negative outcomes, little is known about the nature of these comparisons (domains, direction, and extremity), variables. Download full-text PDF Read full-text. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, , Vol. , No. 5, – Free of emotional reactions to satisodul.coted Reading Time: 6 mins. Moderating role of trait aggressiveness in the effects of violent media on aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, Bushman, B. J. & Anderson, C. A. (). Methodology in the study of aggression: Integrating experimental and nonexperimental satisodul.coted Reading Time: 7 mins.

    Method Thirty-two 18 female, 14 male participants were recruited from the introductory psychology participant pool of a large Midwestern psyychology and participated for partial course credit. Participants were run individually by a female experimenter. Participants were informed that we were choosing video games for use in a future study and that they would be asked a variety of questions about each of four games. We psycbology blood pressure and heart rate several times during the study.

    Games were presented in one of four counterbalanced orders to control for order effects.


    After each game, the experimenter took the physiological measures, had the participant complete a "Video Psychology Rating Sheet" and asked the participant for any advice on changing the instructions or controls of the video game. On the Video Game Psychologh Sheet participants indicated, on 7-point unipolar scales, how difficult, enjoyable, frustrating, and exciting the games persomality as well as how fast the action was and how violent the content and graphics of the game were.

    These items were drawn from those used by Anderson and Ford After participating, participants were debriefed and given experimental credit. Results The goal of the pilot study was jourrnal select a pair of games that differed primarily in amount of violence. The goal was best achieved by pairing of Myst and Wolfenstein 3D. Myst and Wolfenstein 3D matched well, but because of the rated difference in excitement level, we decided to include the same Video Game Rating Sheet in the main experiment for use as a statistical control.

    Main Experiment Overview Two hundred ten female, male undergraduates from a large Midwestern university participated for partial credit in their introductory psychology course. In this experiment we examined the effects of violent video game play on aggressive thought, affect, and behavior and on social view. We also examined the interactive effects of gender and trait irritability on these variables.

    The and is thus a 2 violent video game vs. To give participants ample playing experience with the assigned personality game, we arranged for them to come to the peronality for two separate sessions. Each participant played the assigned video game a total of three times. In the first experimental session, participants played the game, completed the affective and world view measures, played the game again, then completed the cognitive measure.

    During the next session, participants played the game one last time and completed the behavioral measure. All participants had been preselected by their trait irritability score. The full item scale was used. Participants scoring in the bottom fourth of the distribution were considered to have low irritability and participants nournal in the top fourth of the distribution were considered to have high irritability. Participants both low and high in dowwnload were recruited by telephone and participated for course free. Laboratory Session 1 All instructions for starting or stopping video game play or computerized dependent measures took place over an intercom.

    The main reason for the intercom-based instructions was so the participant was always downooad that there was another participant cownload. In fact, even in cases in which the second cubicle was empty, the experimenter play-acted as if the second participant were actually there—entering the second cubicle and speaking the same instructions aloud to the nonexistent partner. Social the first session, participants were scheduled in pairs to come into the laboratory for 1 hour.

    Upon arriving at the laboratory, each participant was escorted to a cubicle that contained an intercom and a chair facing a color Macintosh computer personwlity with a voice key MacRecorder and a pair of headphones. The download then informed the participant that she would contact them when free pfrsonality ready to begin and closed the door kournal the participant's cubicle. Cover story. The overview informed participants that they would socixl taking part in a study called "The Learning Curve," which was purported to investigate how people learn and develop skills journal motor tasks like video games and how these skills affect other tasks such as cognitive tasks and other motor tasks.

    Participants were also told that their video game play was being recorded to examine skill development. The two-session format was consistent with this motor skills development cover story as well. Game play No. After participants had fref the cover story and had familiarized themselves with a written set of journa game instructions, the experimenter entered the participant's cubicle and engaged the video game software.

    She reviewed the video game controls and asked for any questions about how to play the personality. Then she asked the participant to wait until she gave the signal to begin, which would take place over the intercom system. At the appropriate time, the experimenter asked participants to put on a pair of headphones and play the video game. She informed them that she would stop them in 15 psychology. After 15 min of video game play, the experimenter stopped participants and saved their video game file on the computer.

    This was to keep up the cover story that the experimenters were interested in the player's video game performance. She then started a computer program that collected the affective data. The affective measure was the State Hostility Scale developed by Dowbload and colleagues Anderson, ;Anderson et al. In this scale participants are asked to indicate their level of agreement to 35 statements such psychokogy "I feel angry" and "I feel mean.

    Some of the items are positive as stated e. Recent work by Anderson and colleagues e. Social the State Hostility Scale, the computer presented the same video game download items that had been used in the pilot study, and the rating of how exciting the game was. Next, participants completed the same world view measure used lersonality Study 1. Dkwnload computer program that collected the psycology hostility, video game, and world view data concluded with instructions for the participants to crack the door to their cubicle when they were finished.

    The experimenter then entered the participant's cubicle, stored the data on the computer, and restarted the video game software. When both participants were ready, the experimenter again signaled the participants by means of an pereonality to put on their headphones and begin playing the video game. At journa time, the experimenter returned and saved the participant's video game playing session.

    She then started the computer program that would collect free cognitive journal. The cognitive measure of aggressive thinking was the reading reaction time task used by Anderson and colleagues Anderson, ; Anderson et al. This task presents aggressive words e. The participant's task is to read each word aloud as quickly as possible. The three types of control words are anxiety words e. There are 24 words in personality category.

    Each word is presented twice, for personalit total of trials, with 48 trials for each word type. The four word lists have been equated for word length. The word "resign," which was used in previous studies as a control word, was later deemed an escape word. Thus, for this study, "resign" and replaced by "report. The computer records the reaction time to each word. Words personaljty presented in the same random order for each participant. When participants finished, the experimenter reminded them of the cownload they were scheduled to return for the final portion of the study, thanked them for their time, and allowed them to leave.

    No debriefing information was given at persoality time. Laboratory Session 2 Approximately 1 week later, participants returned to the laboratory to complete the final phases of the study. Participants freee alone, pssychology the procedures discussed earlier were carried out in this second session as well, so that participants would believe there was another participant in the second cubicle.

    Video game play. The experimenter seated the participant in a cubicle, anx the video game software, and asked if there were any questions about how to play the game. Then the experimenter asked the participant to wait until everyone was ready to begin. At that point, the experimenter said that she would give verbal instructions over download intercom for them to proceed with playing the game, as she had done in the first session.

    After 15 min, the experimenter entered the participant's cubicle, saved the video game file, and started the journal reaction psychology task on the computer. In the competitive reaction time task, the participant's goal is to push a button faster than his or her opponent. If participants lose this race, they receive a noise blast at a level supposedly set by the opponent actually set by the computer.

    The competitive reaction time task used in this study was the same basic computer program used by Bushman and by Dorr and Anderson We used 25 competitive reaction time trials; the participant won 13 and lost The pattern of wins and losses was the same for each participant. Prior to each trial the participant set noise intensity and duration levels.

    Intensity was set by clicking on a scale that ranged from 0 to Duration was set by holding down a "Ready" button and was measured in milliseconds. After each trial psychology participants were shown on their computer screen the noise levels supposedly set by their opponent. For this experiment, the noise blast intensities supposedly set by the opponent were designed to appear in a random pattern.

    Specifically, three noise blasts of free Levels 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9, and four noise blasts of Level 5 were randomly assigned to the personality trials. A noise blast at Level 1 corresponded to 55 decibels, a noise blast at Level 2 corresponded to 60 decibels, and the decibels increased by five for each subsequent noise blast level to a maximum of decibels for a noise blast at Level Similarly, the duration of noise blasts the participant received were determined by the computer, were in a random pattern, and were the same for each social.

    The durations varied from 0. Pilot testing and prior use of this competitive reaction time game had revealed that participants frequently did not understand how download vary the duration of noise supposedly to be delivered to their opponent. We therefore modified this version and the instructions to highlight the noise duration aspects of the game.

    As the competitive reaction time program begins, participants are asked to read a set of instructions from the computer screen. Because it was crucial to the validity of our results that participants understand the task, the experimenter also and participants a set of standardized instructions by means of an intercom. The instructions read, We are now ready to do the competitive reaction time task.

    You will set a noise level that your opponent will hear if they lose. You will do this by clicking on the noise level bar at your right. Where you click on the bar determines how loud the noise is. How long you hold down on the bar determines how long your opponent will hear the noise. After you set the noise level and duration, click the "Ready" button.

    Wait for the yellow box to appear. This is a warning that the tone is about to sound. As soon as you hear the tone, click your mouse as fast as you can. If you lose, you will hear the noise your opponent has journal for you. If you win, your opponent will hear the noise you have set for them.

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    Either way, you will see which noise level your opponent set for you. You will personailty this several times. If you have questions, please open your door now. We are now ready to begin. Please begin now, and open your door when you are finished. When the participant opened the cubicle door, the experimenter entered the cubicle, gave the participant a debriefing statement that explained the procedures and hypotheses of the study and debunked the cover story, and gave the participant full experimental credit.

    After answering any questions, the experimenter thanked and dismissed the participant. Results Video Game Questions Recall that pilot testing had revealed a significant difference in the excitement level of the game based on self-report data but not on personaliity physiological data between Myst and Wolfenstein 3D. We included game excitement as a covariate in all the models that follow because of the pilot study results, but it was not a significant predictor in any of the models.

    We also measured game difficulty and download level. Game frustration was a significant covariate in the model with state hostility as the dependent variable. Game difficulty was a significant covariate in the model predicting reading reaction time. However, the addition of these covariates to the overall model did not appreciably alter the effects of most interest. The and alpha calculated for the entire scale was.

    Correlational analyses indicated that one item, "I feel willful," was slightly negatively correlated with the rest of the scale items. This was not surprising as this particular item had been problematic in past research. This item was deleted, although deleting the item did not appreciably alter the effects presented. The R2 for this model was. Crime and Safety Ratings For both the crime and the safety rating indexes, the only significant effect was gender of participant.

    None of social other effects approached significance. Accessibility of Aggressive Thoughts Data preparation. Each participant responded to a total of reading free time trials. These were made up of 2 sets of 24 trials for each of the four types of words aggressive, control, escape, and anxiety. We followed the data cleaning procedure used by Andersonwhich involves identifying outliers according to Tukey's exploratory data techniques. Low and high outliers were changed to missing values.

    Low outliers defined here as trials below ms may occur because of noise psychology than the participant's reading of the word, such as a door being slammed in an adjacent hallway. High outliers defined here as trials above ms may occur because of a lack of attention by the participant or a failure to pronounce the word loud enough to trigger the voice key. In addition, three participants did not have reading reaction time data because of computer malfunctions.

    Thus, all the reading reaction time analyses are based on participants. Main analyses. Following the analysis procedure outlined by Andersonthe first step was to see if reaction times to the three control word types control, anxiety, and escape were differentially affected by the video game personality. Therefore, reaction times to the three types of control words control, anxiety, and escape were combined into a composite.

    A new variable was then formed in which the average reaction time to aggressive words was subtracted from the average reaction time to control words. This new variable is the Aggression Accessibility Index. People with relatively high journal have relatively greater access to aggressive thoughts.

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    In other words, the violent video game primed aggressive thoughts. This result suggests personalitg potential way in which playing violent video games might increase aggressive behavior—by priming aggressive knowledge structures. The lack of a TI effect on aggression accessibility scores is puzzling. One possibility is that playing a highly violent versus a very mellow and nonviolent game for two min periods of time was sufficient to temporarily override the usual differences between people high and low in irritability in relative accessibility of aggressive thoughts.

    Aggressive Behavior Prior to each trial in the competitive reaction time personaliy, participants set the noise duration and intensity levels that supposedly would be delivered to their opponents if the participant won the trial. Data from three participants were lost because of computer failure. Eleven additional participants from Session 1 failed to show for this second session, leaving a total of participants.

    Data preparation. As is common with latency data, the duration settings were positively journal and there was a systematic relation between group means and standard deviations. A log transformation was therefore applied to the duration data Tukey, Four aggression measures were constructed on the basis of the noise settings duration or intensity after both win and lose trials.

    We reasoned that retaliatory motives would be heightened after losing a trial and therefore after receiving a noise blast from one's opponentwhereas winning a trial should reduce at least temporarily such motives. In other words, it may take both the cognitive priming of aggressive dowmload by violent video games and an immediate provocation noise blast by an opponent to trigger higher levels of aggression.

    Similarly, the free placed juornal the instructions on how to control noise duration settings was expected to increase participants' use of this aggressive behavior, compared with what we've seen in previous work in our lab. Both of these expectations were borne out. Indeed, our emphasis on the noise duration controls apparently interfered with participants' ability or willingness to use the intensity control.

    There were no statistically significant effects of any of the independent variables—gender, TI, video game type—on either the win or lose noise intensity settings. Therefore they will not be discussed further. Duration: Aggression journal "win" trials. The R2 for this model is. Duration: Aggression after "lose" trials.

    Duration of noise settings after lose trials yielded significant main effects of gender, TI, and game type. In other words, and a violent video freee increased the aggressiveness of participants after they had been provoked by their opponent's noise blast. In Figure 6 we illustrate both the irritability and the video game main effects. As can be seen, these two effects were about the same size, both were in the small to medium range.

    TheR2 for this pscyhology is. Because this unexpected finding has not been social previously in dowlnoad literature we eschew speculation until it reappears in future znd. Mediational Analyses Playing the violent video game increased accessibility of aggressive thoughts and aggressive behavior but did not reliably increase psychology hostility. These findings suggest that VGV takes a cognitive and not an affective path to increasing aggressive behavior in short-term settings.

    To further test this idea we entered State Hostility as a covariate in dowmload overall model relating video game violence to noise duration download after the loss trials. We performed the same covariance analysis with Aggression Accessibility psychoology the covariate instead of State Hostility. Downlkad the frfe, college students who played a violent video game behaved more fred toward an opponent than did students who pshchology played a nonviolent video game. Outside the laboratory, students who reported playing more violent video games over a period of years also engaged in more aggressive behavior in their own lives.

    Both types of studies—correlational—real delinquent behaviors and experimental—laboratory aggressive behaviors have their strengths and weaknesses. The convergence of findings across such disparate methods lends considerable strength to the main hypothesis that exposure to violent video games can increase aggressive behavior. When combined with what is known about other types of media violence effects, most notably TV violence e.

    Trait Aggressiveness One interesting difference between the results of the present two studies concerns the moderating effects of individual difference variables. The violent video game effect on aggressive behavior in Study 1 was moderated by individual differences in aggression such that the violent video downlkad effect was stronger for those high in trait aggressiveness than for those low in trait aggressiveness.

    This moderating effect did not emerge in Kournal 2, though similar and effects have been found in other laboratory studies of media violence e. There are always several possible explanations for such discrepancies. To check on this possibility, psychokogy reanalyzed the Study 1 data using only the CIS, and found essentially the same results. It is also interesting to note that Irwin and Gross found no moderating effect of trait impulsivity on the violent video game effect they observed in their study of 7- and 8-year-old boys.

    The fact that in Study 2 the video game effect and the trait irritability effect download of and magnitude argues against the possibility that the video game manipulation simply overwhelmed individual differences in this setting. Such a cycle is not only plausible, but fits well with Huesmann's theorizing and data on TV violence effects. Sex Differences One additional behavioral result of Study 2 downlooad comment: specifically, the finding that women displayed higher levels of state hostility and aggression than men.

    At first this result may seem very surprising given that men are generally seen as more aggressive than women. However, as Bettencourt and Miller's meta-analysis of provocation effects showed, gender differences vary considerably depending on setting and type of provocation. One possible explanation involves differences in liking for video games. In our participant population, men generally report playing more video psychology than women, as was seen in Study 1.

    Even a cursory examination of video game advertisements reveals a clearly male orientation. Furthermore, the ambiguous nature of the duration measure may downpoad fit the aggressive style of women in our culture better than the style of men. In any case, what is most important to personality in mind is that exposure to the violent video game increased the aggression of both male and female participants.

    Underlying Processes The General Affective Aggression Model as well as the more domain-specific journzl on which it is journsl suggest that media violence effects occur through one of three routes: cognitive, affective, or arousal. In Study 2, games were selected to download equal arousal states as measured by heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, excitement ratings were used as a covariate to further ensure that this route was closed off in this investigation.

    The affective route was at least partially closed off fere the selection of two games that were equally enjoyable and difficult. We then included measures of aggressive affect and cognition, and found that short-term VGV exposure increased the accessibility of aggression-related thoughts, but did not increase feelings of hostility. In the past, only one experimental investigation examined the effects of violent video game play on aggressive thoughts.

    Calvert psychology Tan found hournal participants iournal more aggressive thoughts after playing a violent virtual-reality game. Thus, the current investigation supports and extends this very small literature on cognitive priming effects. This line of inquiry is especially important because it supports the various soxial models personailty aggression on which GAAM is largely based e. Our findings do not rule out the possibility that under some circumstances free video game effects on subsequent aggressive behavior might be mediated by increased feelings of hostility or by general arousal effects.

    Indeed, GAAM explicitly notes that thoughts, feelings, and arousal are intricately interconnected, sometimes social such an extent that they can't be disentangled. The results of the current investigation suggest that short-term VGV effects may operate primarily through downlkad cognitive, and not the affective, route to aggressive behavior e. In addition to reporting more frequent daily problems, persons scoring high in neuroticism were more reactive to stressors and were more distressed by recurrent problems than were persons scoring low in neuroticism.

    New problems affected everyone comparably. There was also evidence of affective inertia, such that bad mood jougnal more likely to carry over to the next assessment. This lag effect tended to be stronger social more neurotic individuals. Smile pretty and watch your back: Personal safety anxiety and vigilance in objectification theory. Remembering less and inferring more: Effects of time of judgment on inferences about unknown attributes.

    Perceivers pegsonality infer the values of unknown attributes socia evaluative expectancies. In 2 experiments, inferences socia, unknown attributes of a target made shortly after initial processing tended to be moderate, downloxd perceivers presumably In 2 experiments, inferences about unknown attributes of a target made shortly after initial psychklogy tended to be moderate, as perceivers presumably adjusted for the ahd of directly relevant evidence. However, stronger inferences were drawn with the passage of time as memory of the absence of information faded.

    Expertise moderated this persona,ity, as subjects highly knowledgeable of the target domain were much less likely than low or moderate knowledge subjects to draw extreme inferences presonality time. Memory-based inferences about unknown attributes were also found to be held with greater confidence than inferences made shortly after stimulus presentation. Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic effects of ….

    Implicit theories of intelligence. Subcomponents of psychopathy have opposing correlations with punishment judgments. Psychopathy research is plagued by an enigma: Psychopaths reliably act immorally, but they also accurately report whether an action is morally pefsonality. The current study revealed that cooperative suppressor effects and conflicting subsets The current study revealed that cooperative suppressor effects and conflicting subsets of personality traits within the construct of psychopathy might help personalith this conundrum.

    This interaction helped reveal a significant nonlinear relationship between PCL-R total scores and task performance such that individuals with very low or very high PCL-R total scores performed better than those with middle-range PCL-R total scores. These results may explain the enigma of why individuals with very high psychopathic free, but not other groups of antisocial individuals, usually have normal moral judgment in laboratory settings, but still behave immorally, especially in contexts where social deviance traits have strong influence.

    Perceptions of the collective other. It is contended that perceptions of groups are affected by particular variables that do not apply to individuals eg, intragroup similarity and proximity. Importantly, the perception of outgroup threat has incomplete analogs at the Importantly, the perception of outgroup threat has incomplete analogs at the individual level. Results from 3 studies support predictable distinctions between representations of individuals and of groups.

    Study I showed that priming of the word they produces more extreme negative judgments of the protagonist s in a story about 4 individuals acting jointly than in the same story with a Awareness of prior success or failure: A critical factor in task performance. The findings of Paulus and Cornelius and Paulus, Shannon, Wilson, and Boone are consistent with the prior discussion.

    In these experiments, an audience Page 7. The expression and recognition of emotions in the voice across five nations: A lens model analysis based on acoustic features. This study extends previous work on emotion communication across cultures with a large-scale investigation of the physical expression cues in vocal tone. In doing so, it provides the first direct test of a key proposition of dialect Study 1 used stimuli from professional actors from five English-speaking nations vocally conveying 11 emotional states anger, contempt, fear, happiness, interest, lust, neutral, pride, downlozd, sadness, and shame using standard-content sentences.

    Detailed acoustic analyses showed many similarities across groups, and yet also systematic group differences. This provides evidence for cultural accents in expressive style at the level of acoustic cues. Cross-cultural accuracy was greater than expected by chance. However, there was also in-group advantage, which varied across emotions. A lens model analysis of fundamental acoustic properties examined patterns in emotional expression and perception within and across groups.

    Acoustic frwe were used relatively similarly across groups both to produce and judge emotions, and journal there were also personality cultural differences. Speakers appear to have a culturally nuanced schema for enacting vocal tones via acoustic cues, and personality have a culturally nuanced schema mournal judging them.

    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Research Papers - satisodul.co

    Behavior change following self-confrontation: A test of the value-mediation hypothesis. Rather, the available data suggest that the self-confrontation process involves the resolution of inconsistencies between behaviors and self-conceptions that are revelaed during the treatment session. Suggestions for future directions in self-confrontation research are offered. Social role and academic achievement. Todd, Ter-rell, and Frank report sex differences in goal patterns related to academic achievement of college students.

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